The eminence of the city of Faizabad was under the Nawabs of Awadh (Oudh) who made Faizabad their initial capital in 1722. Faizabad was chosen as the initial capital by the first Nawab of Awadh, Nawab Saadat Khan who after being appointed by the Mughals as the Nawab or governor of Awadh province choose Faizabad as its capital and later descendants of Saadat Khan ruled from the city of Faizabad until the year 1774. After the demise of the third Nawab, Nawab Shuja ud Daula his son Nawab Asaf ud Daula took over the reign and shifted the capital from Faizabad to Lucknow that then onwards the city of Lucknow became the seat of the Nawabs of Awadh until the last King Wajid Ali Shah was deposed by the British and the kingdom of Oudh was annexed by the East India Company.
Most of the monuments in Faizabad are credited to Nawab Shuja ud Daula, and the city of Faizabad which was the seat of power became famous for magnificent palaces, forts, mausoleums and mosques.
The city now is a combination of old and new with the two major surviving monuments of Gulab Bari and Bahu Begum Maqbara which continue to rejoice visitors. Due its proximity to the holy city of Ayodhya which is only ten kilometres away and in fact the entire district is now called Ayodhya, instead of Faizabad, the city of Faizabad can be visited in combination with a visit to Ayodhya. It would be a great experience to see how the composite culture of Awadh took shape and how many prominent temples of Ayodhya included the famed Hanuman Garhi was built on the land donated by the Nawabs of Awadh.
Gulab Bari is built amidst rose gardens and water tanks on its four sides is the magnificent mausoleum of Nawab Shuja ud Daula who ruled Awadh from 1753 to 1775.
It is a fine example of Indo-Islamic style of architecture. The tomb has fine carvings on its pillars and walls. Gulab Bari was initially used to hold religious congregations and meetings during the reign of the Nawabs. Apart from his tomb there are tombs of his mother and father. In the same compound there is even a beautiful mosque and an Imambada and it also has even a watch tower near the mosque within the compound.
Bahu Begum ka Makbara
Bahu Begum ka Makbara is the most beautiful, elaborate and one of its kind architecture in the Awadh. It is the mausoleum of Nawab Shuja ud Daula’s wife, Begum Unmatuzzohra Bano who was also called Bahu Begum. This mausoleum is the tallest monument in the whole of Faizabad measuring about forty two metres in height and is known for its architectural intensity.
Built in 1816 to serve as a tomb for the queen it is a brilliant example of Awadhi style of architecture with a three domes, elaborately coloured and stucco walls and ceilings. In the centre of the building lie the mortal remains of Bahu Begum. The hall above her tomb is used for commemorating her death anniversary. From the top of the tomb one can have a panoramic view of Faizabad.
It is a ghat on the bank of River Saryu that holds a great religious significance. It is associated with the events of the Ramayana and is believed to be the place where Lord Rama took the final dip to denounce the world or Jal Samadhi. The ghats at the River Saryu were built by Raja Darshan Singh in the early 19th Century. Several temples dedicated to Lord Rama are built on the banks. Many priests and devotees come and sing holy hymns at the site in the honour of Lord Rama. It is a belief that taking a dip at this bank relieves one from worldly sufferings and worries.